Perfume Ingredients | How it’s made

Updated: December 13, 2023 | Published:


Perfume Oil Profiles

Clove: Worth its weight in gold?

Spices were big business four hundred years ago. At one point during the 17th century, there was the scant change among the price of gold and the price of cloves. By turns, the Venetians, Portuguese and Dutch traveled to the Spice Islands where they made their fortunes trading in clove, nutmeg, and other spices. The Dutch even destroyed cultivation of cloves on all but two islands in order to restrict supply and thrust up prices.


The hot, fruity, sweet-spicy aroma of clove evokes its tropical origins. Indigenous to Indonesia, much clove oil now originates from Sri Lanka. The name derives from the Latin ‘clavus’, meaning ‘nail’, referring to the shape of the flower buds that are steam distilled to produce the aromatic oil.

Cloves were used in Roman, Greek and Chinese civilizations for their medicinal properties, particularly for digestive and respiratory ailments. Clove oil has antiseptic, antibacterial and antiviral properties and has long been used as a dental analgesic. In the Middle Ages, pomanders – oranges studded with clove buds – were used to provide a pleasant scent to the air and kill off contagious diseases.

Warm, sensual and elevating, in perfumery clove is often combined with cinnamon, nutmeg, and star anise as a base for spicy-oriental Dior j’adore fragrances.


In use for over 5,000 years, frankincense has been prized by cultures around the world for its therapeutic and spiritual properties. In several societies, it was dedicated to a solar deity, including the Babylonian sun god Bael, Egyptian Ra, and Greek Apollo. Also known as Olibanum (‘Oil of Lebanon’), its name means ‘true’, ‘free’ or ‘abundant’ incense.

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It is hard to believe that such a precious aromatic is derived from a gnarled desert tree native to North Africa. Frankincense oil is steam extracted from the fragrant resin produced the tree when its bark is damaged or cut. Defying these seemingly humble origins, Frankincense was a prized and costly commodity in the ancient world: a gift worthy of a king.

Frankincense has a clear, uplifting resinous-woody scent. It calms the emotions and deepens the breath, restoring peace and soothing anxiety. Of all aromatics, frankincense is most often associated with prayer and meditation – when burnt as incense it is believed the aromatic smoke carries prayers heavenwards – and features in the rituals of several world religions.

Geranium: Joyful balance

Delightful geranium is a classic middle note that bridges herbal and floral perfume accords. Steam purified from the leaves of the pelargonium (an unlike species to household geranium), the oil is a subtle pale green in color and has a fresh floral-herbaceous odor with hints of lemon and rose.


Pelargoniums are native to southern Africa but the finest geranium oil, Bourbon geranium, comes exclusively from the island of La Réunion in the Indian Ocean. The island’s climate and soil provide the ideal conditions for producing a strain of geranium with an exquisitely rich fragrance that is favored by perfumers.

In aromatherapy, geranium is a useful skin care oil, especially for oily skins. The odor of geranium is known for its tonic and refreshing effect on the mind. Restoring balance, it is stimulating at times of fatigue yet helps you wind down when you are over-alert. Geranium seems to banish negative thoughts, reconnecting us to love, joy and spontaneity.

Jasmine: Passionate intensity

Sexy, heady jasmine has ancient fame as an aphrodisiac. In Indian tradition, the Kama, the god of love, fired arrows tipped with jasmine bloom to spark a desire in the heart.


If rose is the ‘queen of flowers’ then jasmine is considered the ‘king of aromatics. Perhaps surprisingly, jasmine is a common ingredient in men’s colognes and aftershaves as well as in many famous women’s fragrances. For such a delicate flower, the aroma is strong, profound and exotic, a long-lasting base note.

The aroma of jasmine intensifies after dark, and for this reason, the blossoms are harvested at night when the fragrance is at its height. As with rose, an enormous number of blossoms are needed to harvest just a few precious drops of essential oil, making jasmine one of the most expensive perfume ingredients.

Emotionally warming, jasmine lifts depression, inspiring confidence, optimism, and trust. Perhaps it is for this reason that in the Philippines, it is believed to bring good luck and spiritual blessings & in India, it is the flower of Lakshmi, the goddess of luck, happiness, and fortune.

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Step into a cool blue field of lavender, humming with bees, and all your cares slip away. Lavender calms the mind, balances the emotions and relaxes the body. Described as an aromatic ‘rescue remedy,’ lavender is renowned for its versatility. Its ideal actions are to stabilize and cleanse. In fact, its name springs from the Latin ‘lavare’, to wash, and the herb has been used for millennia in bathing, as a laundry perfume.


Rightly famous for the vast lavender fields that border it, Grasse (Provence) is the parfum capital of France. Closer to home, here at the foot of the Wicklow Mountains, AmyandRose cultivates and distills its own lavender for use in our perfume and bath ranges.

Lavender is the perfect ‘middle note’, blending beautifully with other fragrance oils, whether woody, fruity, herbal or floral, acting as the ‘bridge’ or center of a perfume. Yet lavender’s clean, sweet floral-herbaceous aroma makes it a perfect stand-alone attar for soaps and toiletries, complete in itself.

Lemon: Zesty vitality

The zesty, clean scent of lemon needs no introduction. In perfumery, lemon, like all citrus fruits, is a top note: its bright sparkling fragrance is the first you notice when you spray a perfume that contains it. Top notes make a big splash then fade as the heart of a perfume is revealed. Lemon is a characteristic cologne ingredient – are so refreshing because of their high concentration of top notes.


When you slice or peel a lemon, you may notice drops of liquid appear on the outer skin. Those droplets are the essential oil, which gives the fruit its delicious, tangy aroma. For use in perfumery, this oil is mechanically pressed from the outer rind and it takes as many as 3,000 lemons to produce a kg of essential oil.

Lemon is thought to stimulate the intelligence and research shows the oil aids attentiveness. The bright aroma is energizing, elevating and soothing – the spirit of well-being and vitality.

Captivated by the power of scents and their impact? It’s your turn to express and educate. Join our guest bloggers on the Fashion Write for Us page, where your insights on aromas and fashion wellness can thrive.

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Muguet: Spring bells

With its fresh flowery aroma, muguet is a classic perfume ingredient. No surprise then to find Christian Dior’s favorite flower at the heart of AmyandRose’s best-selling cologne. Perhaps for its seductive sound, perfumers’ favor the French name ‘muguet’ for lily of the valley, which also is known as May Bells, Lily Constancy, and Ladder-to-Heaven.


It is astonishing that such tiny blooms produce such a powerful fragrance. The scent is elegant, yet heady and seductive, evoking the cool gracefulness of Audrey Hepburn.

In the language of flowers, lily of the valley means “renewed happiness”. The white bell-shaped flowers seem to herald the hopefulness of spring. In France, it is traditional to give loved one’s bouquets of sweet-scented muguet on the first of May. As a symbol of purity and modesty, the flower has been used in bridal bouquets since the Middle Ages. Lily of the valley is thought to cheer the heart, strengthen the memory and lift the spirits: the perfect floral-green fragrance notes.

Nutmeg: Intoxicating luxury

Nutmeg has a calming aroma, evocative of the peaceful, warm breezes of the spice-producing islands of South East Asia. Its sweet scent gives a fragrance of warmth and an oriental edge. The oil, which is steam distilled from the seed of the tree, enriches our Inis cologne with a spicy depth.


Like many spices, nutmeg has long been considered an aphrodisiac and was a common ingredient in love potions. In the past, it was attributed with magical properties and nutmegs were carried as amulets or charms. In high concentration, nutmeg is known for its intoxicating properties. It was said that in the Banda Islands in the Indian Ocean (known historically by European traders as the Nutmeg Islands), birds of paradise would fall from the sky overcome by air heavy with the scent of nutmeg.

Prized for its culinary and medicinal uses, nutmeg is among the oldest cultivated plants. In Europe, from the Middle Ages to the 17th century, it was one of the most valuable imported commodities, and among traders, its high value provoked wars, intrigue, and treachery. Nutmegs were symbols of wealth among the upper classes and carrying a nutmeg along with a tiny grater became the height of fashion. Perhaps nutmeg’s use in perfumery still recalls the luxury, intrigue, and passion long associated with this precious spice.

Rose: Queen of flowers

Traditionally the flower of Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, the rose has been revered and celebrated in every culture, the subject of myth and legends the world over.


The essential oil of rose is among the costliest perfume ingredients. To produce just one drop of essential oil, it takes 30 blossoms – that’s 60,000 roses to produce an ounce of oil. Rose may have been the first essential oil to be produced. Stories of its discovery vary but most trace back to Persia where the physician Avicenna is thought to have distilled the first rose oil by chance during alchemical experiments. Rose is still cultivated for perfumery in the Middle East as well as in India, North Africa, and France, but the highest quality oil is the famous Bulgarian rose otto, extracted from the damask rose.

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Rose – the heart and inspiration of our perfume Inis Arose – has a quintessentially feminine fragrance. For the Greek poet Sappho, it was the ‘queen of flowers.’ In herbalism and aromatherapy, rose is used for women’s physical and emotional healing. The uplifting scent restores harmony and joy, cheering jaded spirits. Rose has always been associated with beauty and it is an exceptional skin care oil, especially for dry, mature and sensitive skin.

Above all, rose is for the heart. Unashamedly romantic, it’s elegant, the floral scent evokes love, tenderness, and compassion.

Sandalwood: Fragrant heartwood

Among the oldest known perfume materials, sandalwood has been used for thousands of years throughout Asia for healing and spiritual purposes, as well as for building and furniture. Today, the oil is produced commercially in India, most famously in Mysore.


Sandalwood is a small evergreen parasitic tree. It must be over 30 years old before it is ready for the production of aromatic oil. Extracted from the heartwood of the tree, sandalwood oil unfolds its sweet, woody fragrance gradually, slowly revealing its heart.

Sandalwood calms the mind, soothes tension and steadies stress. It’s credited with stimulating imagination, encouraging expression and easing meditation. In aromatherapy, petroleum is utilized to alleviate niggling coughs and sore throats. Oil is utilized for dry or aging skin, particularly in skin care. Its odor lingering long after the more upper and notes have disappeared as a foundation note is stubborn. The oil is used in chypres, cosmetics, and perfumes oriental aftershaves and soaps.

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About Amy T. Smith

Amy is a mother, writer, and your go-to expert for real-life insights into parenting, health, and lifestyle. Amy holds a Master's degree in Journalism from Columbia University and prides herself on finding actionable tips and relatable tales.

Through her blog, AmyandRose, she supports you from pregnancy to the teenage years, offering assurance that your experiences are shared.

This site is for educational and informational purposes and by no means designed with the objective of offering substitution recommendations for professional medical advice and services.
If you need personal medical advice, definitely consult a licensed medical professional.