Understanding Ectopic Pregnancy: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Support

| | Reviewed by: Rose Smith
Updated: February 21, 2024 | Published:

An Ectopic Pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants itself outside the uterus, most commonly in a fallopian tube.

This type of pregnancy cannot continue normally and poses potential health risks to the mother. It is a medical emergency. If you suspect you may have an ectopic pregnancy, seek medical advice immediately.

This article aims to provide essential information and highlight available support systems.

What is an Ectopic Pregnancy?

In a normal pregnancy, a fertilized egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus, where it implants and grows.

In an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg implants somewhere outside the uterus. The fallopian tubes are the most common location (tubal pregnancy).

However, an ectopic pregnancy can rarely occur in the ovary, cervix, or abdominal cavity. Unfortunately, an ectopic pregnancy is non-viable, meaning the embryo cannot develop into a healthy baby.

Causes and Risk Factors of Ectopic Pregnancy

  • Causes:
    • Fallopian Tube Damage: Scarring or blockage in the fallopian tubes, often due to infection (like pelvic inflammatory disease), past surgery, or endometriosis, can hinder the egg’s passage to the uterus.
    • Hormonal Factors: Imbalances in pregnancy hormones might affect how the egg moves.
    • Birth Control: In rare instances, pregnancy can occur despite using an intrauterine device (IUD) or progestin-only birth control pills.
    • Unknown Factors: Sometimes, the cause of an ectopic pregnancy cannot be determined.
  • Risk Factors:
    • Previous Ectopic Pregnancy: Having had one ectopic pregnancy increases the risk of another.
    • Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs): Untreated STIs, particularly chlamydia and gonorrhea, can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), increasing the risk.
    • Smoking: Smoking damages the fallopian tubes, raising the chance of an ectopic pregnancy.
    • Age: The risk increases after the age of 35.
    • Fertility Treatments: Certain fertility procedures like in vitro fertilization (IVF) might slightly increase the risk.
    • Endometriosis: This condition, where uterine-like tissue grows outside the uterus, can contribute to ectopic pregnancies.

Symptoms of Ectopic Pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy might not cause any noticeable symptoms initially. However, as it progresses, signs may appear, including:

  • Early Signs
    • Mild Cramping or Pain: Usually on one side of the lower abdomen or pelvis.
    • Vaginal Bleeding or Spotting: May be lighter or different than a usual period.
    • Pregnancy Test Irregularities: A missed period or unusual test results.
  • Emergency Symptoms
    • Rupture: A ruptured ectopic pregnancy causes severe, sudden pain in the abdomen or pelvis, often with shoulder pain. This can lead to heavy internal bleeding.
    • Dizziness, Weakness, and Fainting: These indicate significant blood loss.

Get immediate medical attention if you experience any of the above emergency symptoms.

Diagnosis of Ectopic Pregnancy

If you are pregnant or think you might be, and have any concerning symptoms, consult your doctor immediately. They will use the following methods to diagnose an ectopic pregnancy:

  • Pregnancy Test: A positive result suggests pregnancy.
  • Transvaginal Ultrasound: Provides images of the reproductive organs, potentially locating the ectopic pregnancy.
  • HCG Monitoring: Measuring levels of the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) helps evaluate the pregnancy’s progress.
  • Laparoscopy: In complex cases, a small incision is made to insert a thin camera for direct visualization.

Ectopic Pregnancy Treatment

The only way to manage an ectopic pregnancy is to end it, as it cannot continue safely. Treatment options include:

  • Medication (Methotrexate): Suitable for early-stage, small ectopic pregnancies. It stops the growth of the cells.
  • Surgery:
    • Laparoscopy: The most common procedure; small incisions to remove the pregnancy. In some cases, the fallopian tube may be repaired (salpingostomy).
    • Laparotomy: Used for emergencies or severe bleeding. Requires a larger incision to remove the ectopic pregnancy and potentially the affected fallopian tube (salpingectomy).

Recovery & Emotional Impact

  • Emotional Impact: An ectopic pregnancy is a loss that can have a profound emotional impact. Feelings of grief, sadness, shock, anger, and anxiety about the future are common. It’s important to acknowledge these emotions and seek support.
  • Support Resources:
    • Organizations: The Ectopic Pregnancy Trust (https://ectopic.org.uk/), or similar organizations in your region, offer information, resources, and online forums for connection.
    • Therapy: Counseling can help process the experience, address emotional pain, and manage concerns about future pregnancies.

Future Pregnancies After Ectopic Pregnancy

Most women who have had an ectopic pregnancy go on to have successful pregnancies in the future. However, the chances depend on several factors:

  • Treatment: If a fallopian tube is removed, fertility is affected. However, pregnancy is still possible with the remaining tube.
  • Cause of the Ectopic Pregnancy: If the underlying cause is treated (e.g., an STI), the risk of recurrence may decrease.
  • Overall Health: Consulting your doctor about overall health and any pre-existing conditions is essential.

Preconception counseling is highly recommended if you’ve had an ectopic pregnancy and wish to try for a future pregnancy.

Prevention (where applicable)

While not all ectopic pregnancies are preventable, taking these steps can minimize your risk:

  • Manage Risk Factors:
    • Treat STIs Promptly: Get regular STI screenings and ensure proper treatment of any infections.
    • Manage Endometriosis: If you have endometriosis, discuss treatment options with your doctor.
    • Quit Smoking: Smoking cessation significantly improves reproductive health.
  • Regular Checkups: Gynecological exams can help identify and address potential issues early.

When to See a Doctor

Seek immediate medical attention if you suspect an ectopic pregnancy, especially if you experience severe abdominal pain, shoulder pain, heavy bleeding, dizziness, or fainting.

If you’ve had an ectopic pregnancy, consult your doctor before trying to conceive again.


An ectopic pregnancy is a serious medical condition that requires prompt treatment. While it can be a difficult experience, both physically and emotionally, remember that you are not alone. With appropriate care and guidance, many women have healthy pregnancies after an ectopic pregnancy. Support and information are readily available to help you through this journey.

Message of Hope: Losing a pregnancy, even an unviable one, can be emotionally devastating. Allow yourself time to grieve and process your feelings. Know that hope exists for the future, and support is there for you.

FAQs about Ectopic Pregnancy

  1. What are 3 signs of an ectopic pregnancy?

    Abdominal or Pelvic Pain: Often described as a sharp, stabbing pain, or a dull ache, mainly on one side.
    Vaginal Bleeding or Spotting: May be lighter or different from your usual period.
    Shoulder Pain: This unusual symptom occurs if a ruptured ectopic pregnancy causes internal bleeding that irritates the nerves leading to your shoulder.
    Seek emergency care if you experience severe pain, heavy bleeding, dizziness, or fainting.

  2. What is the main cause of ectopic pregnancy?

    The most common cause of ectopic pregnancy is damage or blockage in the fallopian tubes. This can happen due to:
    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): Often caused by untreated sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
    Past Surgery: Scarring in the fallopian tubes can occur following abdominal or pelvic surgeries.
    Endometriosis: A condition where uterine-like tissue grows outside the uterus.

  3. Can a baby be saved in an ectopic pregnancy?

    Unfortunately, no. An ectopic pregnancy cannot continue normally because the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus where it cannot get the necessary space and nourishment to develop. To protect the mother’s health, the pregnancy must be ended.

  4. How is an ectopic pregnancy removed?

    There are two main treatment options:
    Medication (Methotrexate): If the ectopic pregnancy is detected early and is small, this medication can stop the cell growth, allowing your body to absorb the pregnancy tissue.
    Surgery: The most common method is laparoscopy, which involves small incisions to remove the ectopic pregnancy. In emergencies, a larger incision (laparotomy) may be needed.

  5. Q: How can I detect an ectopic pregnancy?

    If you are pregnant or think you might be, see your doctor right away if you experience any concerning symptoms. Diagnosis involves:
    Pregnancy Test: A positive result indicates pregnancy.
    Transvaginal Ultrasound: Images help locate a potential ectopic pregnancy.
    Blood Tests: Monitoring hCG hormone levels aids in diagnosis.

  6. When are the first signs of ectopic pregnancy?

    Early signs can be subtle and mimic those of a normal pregnancy. Be aware of:
    Mild pain or cramping in the abdomen or pelvis
    Light vaginal bleeding or spotting
    Missed period or unusual pregnancy test results

  7. How long can an ectopic pregnancy last?

    Most ectopic pregnancies are discovered within the first few weeks of pregnancy. A ruptured ectopic pregnancy is a medical emergency, as the longer it continues, the higher the risk of complications due to internal bleeding.

  8. Is an ectopic pregnancy a miscarriage?

    While both involve pregnancy loss, there’s a distinction. A miscarriage specifically refers to the loss of a pregnancy within the uterus before 20 weeks. An ectopic pregnancy is where the fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus.

  9. Who is at risk for ectopic pregnancy?

    Certain risk factors increase the likelihood of an ectopic pregnancy:
    Previous ectopic pregnancy
    History of pelvic infections (STIs)
    Age over 35
    Fertility treatments
    Structural issues in the fallopian tubes

  10. Can bad sperm cause ectopic pregnancy?

    No, sperm quality does not directly cause ectopic pregnancy. The issues stem from how the fertilized egg travels and where it implants.

  11. Can I get pregnant after an ectopic pregnancy?

    Yes, many women have healthy pregnancies after experiencing an ectopic pregnancy. Your ability to conceive in the future depends on several factors, including the treatment used and the health of your remaining fallopian tube(s). Discuss your individual situation with your doctor.

Remember: Seeking prompt medical attention is crucial if you suspect an ectopic pregnancy. With proper treatment and support, many women go on to have successful pregnancies.


About Amy Smith

Amy, an award-winning journalist with a Master's in Journalism from Columbia University, has excelled for over twelve years, specializing in parenting, pregnancy, nursing, fashion, and health.

Her acclaimed blog, AmyandRose, demonstrates profound expertise shaped by her journey from pregnancy to nurturing a teenager and a toddler. Recognized by several parenting awards, Amy's work has been featured in top-tier health and lifestyle magazines, underscoring her authority in these fields.

Her contributions, grounded in evidence-based research and personal experience, provide invaluable, credible insights for parents navigating the complexities of modern child-rearing and personal well-being.

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